Crime, punishment and expiation in The Quran
The following verses list specified punishments and expiations in this world. They are presented without analysis.
Please note there are many more verses discussing ethics, and negative consequences of certain actions, but no specified punishment/expiation given, hence not included below.
General principle of justice: equivalence or less
And those who, when gross injustice befalls them, they seek justice. The recompense for an evil/crime shall be its likeness, but whoever forgives and makes right, then his reward is upon God. He does not like the wrongdoers. [42:40]
And do not kill the soul, for God has made this forbidden except with truth/justice. And whoever is killed wrongfully, then We have given his heir authority, but not he should exceed in the killing, indeed he is helped/victorious. [17:33]
Say: "Come let me recite for you what your Lord has forbidden for you: that you should not set up anything with Him; and be kind to your parents; and do not kill your children for fear of poverty, We provide for you and for them; and do not come near lewdness, what is plain of it or subtle; and do not kill the soul which God has forbidden except with truth/justice. That is what He enjoined you that you may comprehend." [6:151]
And We have decreed for them in it that a life for a life, and an eye for an eye, and a nose for a nose, and an ear for an ear, and a tooth for a tooth, and for wounds is just-recompense so whoever gave charity with it then it is an expiation for him. And whoever does not judge with what God has sent down, then these are the wicked. [5:45]
Also see: 18:74, 2:73 (point 13), 4:85.
And it is not for a believer to kill another believer except by accident. And whoever kills a believer by accident, then he shall set free a believing slave, and give compensation to the family; except if they remit it. If he was from a people who are enemies to you, and he was a believer, then you shall set free a believing slave. And if he was from a people between whom you had a covenant, then a compensation to his family and set free a believing slave. Whoever does not find, then the fasting of two months sequentially as a repentance from God; God is Knowledgeable, Wise. [4:92]
And whoever kills a believer intentionally, then his reward shall be Hell, eternally abiding therein, and God will be angry with him, and curse him, and for him is prepared a great retribution. [4:93]
O you who believe, just-recompense has been decreed for you in the case of those who are slain; the free for the free, and the slave for the slave, and the female for the female. Whoever is forgiven anything by his fellow/brother, then it is to be followed with fairness and payment to him with kindness; that is an alleviation from your Lord, and a mercy. Whoever transgresses after that, he will have a painful retribution. [2:178]
And through just-recompense you will be protecting life, O people of understanding, that you may be righteous. [2:179]
Corruption in the land
It is because of this that We have decreed for the Children of Israel: "Anyone who kills a person who has not committed murder, or who has not committed corruption in the land; then it is as if he has killed all the people! And whoever spares a life, then it is as if he has given life to all the people." Our messengers had come to them with clarification, but many of them are, after this, still corrupting on the Earth. [5:32]
The recompense of those who fight God and His messenger, and seek to make corruption in the land, is that they will be killed or crucified or that their hands and feet be cut off from alternate sides or that they be banished from the land; that is a disgrace for them in this world and in the Hereafter they will have a great retribution. [5:33]
Except for those who repent before you overpower them, then know that God is Forgiving, Merciful. [5:34]
Adultery, fornication, immorality
Those guilty of illicit sex (adultery/fornication), you shall lash each of them with one hundred lashes, and do not let any pity overtake you regarding God's system if you believe in God and the Last Day. And let a group of the believers witness their punishment.
The adulterer/fornicator will only marry an adulteress/fornicator or polytheist. And the adulteress/fornicator, will only marry her an adulterer/fornicator or a polytheist. And that has been forbidden for the believers.
And those who accuse the chaste women and they do not bring forth four witnesses, then you shall lash them eighty lashes and do not ever accept their testimony. Those indeed are the evildoers.
Except those who repent after this and do right, then God is Forgiving, Merciful.
Also see 24:6-9 for spousal allegation.
And whoever of you cannot afford to marry the believing protected women, then from those committed to you by oath of the believing young women. God is more aware of your faith, some of you to each other. You shall marry them with the permission of their parents and give them their dowries in kindness; to be protected, not for illicit sex or taking lovers. If they become protected, then any of them who comes with immorality/lewdness shall have half the punishment of what is for the protected women. This is for those who fear hardship from among you. But if you are patient it is better for you, and God is Forgiver, Merciful. [4:25]
And those of your women who commit immorality/lewdness, you shall bring four witnesses over them from amongst you; if they bear witness, then you shall restrict them in the homes until death terminates their lives, or God makes for them a way out.
The two who commit it from amongst you, then you shall harm/reprimand them. If they repent and amend, then leave them alone. God is Redeemer, Compassionate.
Repentance is only for those who commit sin out of ignorance and then repent soon after; these will be forgiven by God, God is Knowledgeable, Wise.
O you who believe, it is not lawful/allowed for you to inherit the women forcibly/unwillingly, and nor that you hinder them to take away some of what you gave them unless they commit a clear lewdness. And live/consort with them in kindness, so if you dislike them, then perhaps you may dislike something and God makes in it much good. [4:19]
And those who harm the believing men and the believing women, with no just reason, they have brought upon themselves a slander and a gross sin.
O prophet, tell your wives, your daughters, and the wives of the believers that they shall lengthen (or draw near) over themselves their outer-garments. That is more likely they be recognized so not harmed. God is Forgiver, Merciful.
If the hypocrites and those with disease in their hearts and those who spread lies in the city do not refrain, then We will let you overpower them, then they will not be able to remain as your neighbours except for a short while.
They are cursed wherever they are found, and they are taken and killed in numbers.
O you who believe, be aware of God and give up what is left from usury, if you are truly believers.
And if you will not do this, then take notice of a war from God and His messenger; but if you repent, then you will have back your principal money, you will not be wronged nor will you wrong.
The male thief, and the female thief, you shall mark, cut, or cut-off their hands/means as a recompense for what they earned, and to serve as a deterrent from God. God is Noble, Wise. Whoever repents after his wrongdoing and makes amends, then God will relent on him. Truly, God is Forgiving, Merciful. [5:38-39]
God will not hold you for your unintentional oaths, but He will hold you for what oaths you have made binding; its expiation shall be the feeding of ten poor from the average/equitable of what you feed your family, or that you clothe them, or that you free a slave; whoever cannot find shall fast for three days; that is an expiation for making your oaths when you swear. And be careful from making oaths. It is such that God clarifies for you His revelations that you may be thankful. [5:89]
O you who believe, do not kill any game while you are restricted; and whoever of you kills it deliberately, then recompense is value similar to what was killed of the livestock, judging by two equitable persons from you, an offering/gift reaching the base/projection or an expiation feeding needy people, or equivalent that fast/abstinence; that he may taste the consequence of his deed. God forgives what has passed, and whoever returns then God will take retribution from him. God is Severe, Owner of retribution. [5:95]
And fulfil the homage and the visit for God. So if you are prevented/restrained then what is easy of the offering and do not relieve/unburden your chiefs/representatives until the offering reaches its permitted place so whoever from among you was sick or with him harm from his chief/representative then ransom from abstinence/fast or charity or sacrifice/observance.
So when you are safe/secure then whoever enjoyed with the visit to the homage then what is easy of the offering, so whoever couldn't find then an abstinence/fast three days during the homage and seven when you returned, this is ten complete.
That is for one whose people are not present (at) the inviolable time of acknowledgement and be conscious of God and know that God is severe in punishment. [2:196]
Those who had estranged their wives in this manner, then they again repeat it, they shall free a slave before they have sexual contact between them. This is to enlighten you. God is well aware of everything you do.
If he cannot find any, then he shall fast two consecutive months before any sexual contact between them. If he cannot, then he shall feed sixty poor people. That is so you would believe in God and His messenger. And these are the limits set by God. The disbelievers have incurred a painful retribution.
A few number of days; however, if any of you is ill or traveling, then the same number from different days; and as for those who are able a ransom feeding the needy. And whoever does good voluntarily, then it is better for him. And fast/abstinence is better for you if you knew.
O you who believe, if you wish to hold a private meeting with the messenger, you shall offer a charity before you do so. This is better for you, and purer. If you cannot do so, then God is Forgiver, Merciful. [58:12]
And others who have confessed their sins, they have mixed good work with bad. Perhaps God will pardon them. God is Forgiving, Merciful. [9:102]
Take from their wealth a charity cleansing them and purifying/growing them by/with it, and bless/bond over them; for your blessing/bond is a tranquility for them; and God is Hearer, Knowledgeable.
See also divorce procedure:
If you know of other such verses, please let me know.
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